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How does the earphones work?

How does the earphones work?

Do you listen to the music through those small mighty speakers which rest very much near to your ears? Do you wonder what is inside that small electronic equipment which you wear to enjoy music? Well in this article we will try to know how earphone works and what are the different parts which forms an earphone.

A typical earphone has a small speaker inside them same that big audio products have. The difference between large speakers and earphones has is the size.

An earphone typically consists of the following:

1.Cables and Audio jack.

These are the primary things which an earphone has but both of these are not compulsory. Modern earphones in today’s world may be wireless without any kind of connecting cables and an earphone jack. However still a lot of earphones uses 3.5mm audio jack to receive and transmit audio signals from origin device to the speakers.

2.Permanent Magnet.

If you ever had seen opened earphone you probably know that there is a magnet inside the earphones. This is a permanent speaker and is responsible for movement of coil and production of vibration of diaphragm.

3.Coil or Electromagnet

Basic concept of electromagnet is “when a cable is wrapped in circular shape and current is passed through it develops magnet properties within itself”. The same concept works with the coil of an earphones. A coil is placed inside the permanent magnet in such a way that it can move upward and downward within it. When certain electronic signals of different frequencies are passed through the coil it becomes a magnet and moves upward/downwards resulting in vibrations producing sound effects.

4. Diaphragm.

This is the thin flexible cover attached with the coil. All the outer ends of the diaphragm are rigidly fixed with the permanent magnet air tightly. When the electromagnetic coil moves in and out inside the permanent magnet, it also moves along with that as both electrogenic coil and diaphragm are connected with each other. The Diaphragm is as thin as a polythene bags` In large speaker this diaphragm may be made of thinner material.


This is simply the covering made to hold the whole speaker assembly and protect it against any external wear and tear. Covering of earphones are made up of rich quality plastic or some high-end devices may have covering of aluminum or any other light-weight material.

What is driver unit Then?

When we read the specifications of any audio equipment there is always the driver size mentioned. Driver is nothing separate but the assembly of permanent magnet and electromagnet is called driver unit. The size of the driver unit is the diameter of the diaphragm and is measured in millimeters. Driver size of large speaker is generally more than that of small speaker like earp