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Solenoid Valve and Working principle

Solenoid Valve and Working principle

Whenever we google about this topic, we find so much content and videos on it. But all this information is for one who already knows about the solenoid and its magnetic field. Generally, people do not get the point that what is a solenoid valve, and how does it work? So let’s take a look at the solenoid valve.

What is Solenoid Valve?

The solenoid valve is an automated electronic operated valve. The solenoid valve performs a very important role in automation. This valve has mainly 3 major and important parts: (1) Connector (2) Coil and very important (3) Plunger. let’s check out each part one by one.

  1. Connector: The connector is used to connect the solenoid valve to the pressure switch. This connector is also used as protection from an improper environment, this protective connector can be used with pneumatic solenoid valves or hydraulic solenoid valves. The specific devices can be run on either AC or DC voltage, although some types of connectors can be run on both voltages.
  1. Coil: The coil is used in generating a very controlled magnetic field to operate the valve. This coil is an electrical conductor such as a spiral wire in a tube shape. Whenever we will energize the tube shape coil, a magnetic field will generate inside the tube, and when we de-energize the coil, it ends the magnetic field. Increasing the magnetic field area needs more power supply and to decrease it needs a low power supply.
  1. Plunger: The plunger is used to open or close the valve. It is placed inside the coil with a spring. It moves up and down to open and close the valve ports. When we energize the coil, the electronic magnetic field attracts the plunger upside, and the spring pushes down the plunger when we de-energize the coil.

Here we can understand that the Solenoid valve is a fully electronic operated device that can be set with a timer for a scheduled on-off and also permits wireless control over the flow.  Now let’s check how does it work? And how many types of solenoid valves are available?

Solenoid Valve working Action

The Solenoid Valve is an assembly of solenoid and valve, valve manufacturers have combined and made a new type of valve. The basic principle of the valve is to control the flow of liquid and gas. In this valve, the plunger controls the flow by stopping and allowing it with help of the solenoid coil as directed by the operator. 

In normally open-type solenoid valves require a power supply to stop the flow, when we energize the solenoid the plunger moves towards the solenoid coil and becomes a barrier for the flow. Thus the flow stops and the normally closed type solenoid valve requires a power supply to come out the flow, when we energize the solenoid the plunger moves towards the solenoid coil and allows the flow to pass through.
The solenoid valve manufacturers have also designed a few types of variations in it. They designed a 3-way solenoid valve, a 5-way solenoid valve. The solenoid valves are mostly used with pneumatic and hydraulic devices.